lock plus

Region Specific Archaic Genetic Admixture Among Modern Humans

Region Specific Archaic Genetic Admixture Among Modern Humans

We know that Homo sapiens in different regions of the world interbred with different archaic human species. Generally, Homo sapiens in Europe and Western Asia interbred with (European and Levantine) Neanderthals, in East Asia with Denisovans and (Asian) Neanderthals, and with Paleoafricans in Africa (an archaic introgression found exclusively in Native Africans).

I am a person of 100% European genetic ancestry according to the results of 5 independent genetic testing labs, Nevertheless, I do also have Denisovan genes (2.1% of my genome) even though many of the scientific papers say Europeans do not have known Denisovan ancestry. Obviously, Europeans do have some Denisovan ancestry, either directly or indirectly (most likely) through Denisovan and Neanderthal interbreeding, which is known to have also occurred.

There are also many regional "ghost species" of archaic hominin ancestry lurking in our genomes ("ghost species" known to have existed and identified by genetic sequencing but not yet identified through archeology). So, not only did regional natural selection pressures influence regional genotypical and phenotypical variations among humans, but region-specific interbreeding with different archaic human species did as well.

Western Europeans have, on average, between 1.8 - 2.4% (European and Levantine) Neanderthal genetic inheritance. A Western European myself, I have 4% known archaic human genetic admixture (combining my Neanderthal (1.9%) and Denisovan (2,1%) ancestry together (4%), where my Denisovan ancestry may actually be Denisovan genes carried by European Neanderthals. East Asians, on average, carry 2.3 - 2.6% (Asian) Neanderthal admixture, while Asians generally carry a Neanderthal admixture (quantitatively) similar to Western Europeans (1.8 - 2.4%). Note, European Neanderthals and Asian Neanderthals differ significantly genetically. Other non-African populations carry, on average, 1.5 to 2.1% Neanderthal admixture. African populations carry essentially no Neanderthal or Denisovan admixture, just as non-African populations carry essentially no Paleoafrican admixture.

Both my U5 maternal and I2 paternal genetic lineages are known European Cro-Magnon lineages, where Cro-Magnon Homo sapiens are a hybrid Homo-sapiens and (European-rich) Neanderthal human genotype and phenotype. I am pleased to count Neanderthals among my ancestors. Neanderthals, my ancestors, inhabited Europe for around 450,000 years (which is a long time in which to acquire region-specific genetic variation).

Taking of this together, we can see that striking region-specific genotypic and phenotypic variation has been characteristic of primate evolution for millions of years. There is no scientific basis for suggesting that it is not also characteristic of the evolution of Homo sapiens..